Social PhenomenaSociety and Life

Bullying: definition, participant, types, sections and effects.

What is bullying and what is the effect on the person who is bullied?

Bullying refers to a behavior that causes harm or discomfort through long-term, deliberate physical contact, verbal attack, or psychological manipulation. It features bullying, direct or indirect, active or inactive, solitary or participatory.

Concept and types of Bullying:


Bullying is defined as: A situation where a person is bullied or harassed for a long time’s period under the leadership of one or more people, or he is bullied and becomes a victim of bullying.
Its Participant:
There are three main participant of bullying.
1. Bully:
Bully is one of the main participant of bullying, who acts this with the help of bully initiator and follower. The bully violates the social norms of behavior and moral rules, causing great damage and adverse effects on social harmony and stability, social fairness and justice.

2. Bullied:

He/She is biggest victim of a bullying incident, also have weaker side in the bullying behavior.
The bullied person is prone to internalized problem behaviors such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, loneliness, and suicidal beliefs, and may also have externalized problem behaviors that violate moral and social behavior norms, such as truancy, theft, and assault. The bullied may Affected by these internalized or externalized problem behaviors, they are forced to be marginalized in the peer group.

3. Bystander:

Bystander is one who is neither from bullied and nor from bullies. They are not participant in bullying action. But they have witnessed or heard the bullying seen at that place.

Top 8 types of Bullying:

Following are the eight main and repeated types of bullying.

1. Verbal type:

Verbal bullying includes verbal behaviors such as insults, ridicule, mockery, sarcasm, nicknames, intimidation, etc.

2. Physical type:

It hurts a person, by hitting him, insulting him, hurting him in his body, and pushing him with force etc.

3. Social type:

It hurts a person morally, such as leaving him alone, pushing others to leave his company, and telling them not to befriend him, or to know him.

4. Relationship type:

Use peer relationships and social manipulation to bully, so that the bullied person is excluded from the group or cut off from social connections.

5. Personal and emotional relationship:

It is hurting a person by spreading lies and rumors that offend him, keeping him away, and repelling him.

6. Campus type:

Campus bullying is a common form of bullying, which usually occurs on and off campus, with students as the main body of participation. It usually occurs in school-age children and is an aggressive behavior that goes against the wishes of others. This behavior is often accompanied by actual or perceived power imbalances. Which will occur repeatedly or have the possibility of recurring within a period of time.

7. Cyber type:

Cyber bullying refers to the use of electronic media to express deliberate hostility towards peers for the purpose of harassing , humiliating or hurting others. With the development and popularization of the Internet, cyber bullying has expanded the scope of other types of bullying. Studies have shown that offline bullying is closely related and continuous with online bullying.

8. Sex/gender based:

Including because of the sensitive parts of the body or suffered ridicule, comments or ridicule; because of sexual orientation and suffer ridicule ridiculed; being circulated about sex books or paper; suffered sexual abuse.

For example, bullying based on sexual orientation and gender identity (homophobic bullying and trans-phobic bullying) is a gender-based bullying phenomenon. That is, bullying against the actual or subjectively judged sexual orientation and gender identity of others. Learners who do not conform to mainstream sex and gender norms (including homosexual , bisexual , transgender , and intersex people) may be bullied based on their sexual orientation and gender identity.

Sections of bullying

Bullying is divided into two parts:

Direct bullying:

It includes hitting, pushing, pulling hair, stabbing, slapping, biting, scratching, and other acts that indicate physical abuse.

Indirect bullying:

Where it includes threatening the victim with social isolation, which is achieved in several ways, such as: threatening to spread rumors, refusing to mix with the victim, bullying people who mix with the victim, and criticizing the victim in terms of dress, race, color, etc., and religion, and religion.

Effects of bullying:

The bad effects of bullying are the following:

  1. A person may resort to violence, and it is possible that the person’s friendly and kind nature will turn into a tendency to become aggressive, and thus this person will become one of the individuals who practice and implement bullying.
  2. A person may resort to excessive sleep, or lack of sleep.
  3. The bullied person mental state may change.
  4. The person may suffer from severe nervousness and anger.
  5. A person may experience loss or increased appetite.
  6. A person may have signs of anxiety, restlessness and fear on their facial features.
  7. Bullied person may suffer from behavioral, psychological, and emotional effects.
  8. The person may tend to be depressed, feel lonely, isolated from society, and withdraw from all school activities. Because the bullying may have left verse effects on his/her mental state.
  9. The person may contemplate suicide. As there is a strong relationship between bullying and suicide.
  10. A person may have no interest in his outward appearance, his studies, and the homework that he has to perform.

The role of 3 main participants may changes:

The roles of the bully, the bullied, and the bystander may change at any time.

The bully and the bullied may have dual identities. Bully in one event may become a disadvantaged party in another event, and become the bullied after being bullied. The bullied may vent his bullying to other disadvantaged, bullying and becoming a bully.

Bystanders are affected by bullying and may join the bullying and become bullies; they may also be affected by the worsening of bullying and be involved in bullying incidents and become bullies.
The bully and the bullied in one bullying incident may also be in the bystander position in another bullying incident.

The relationship between discrimination and bullying:

Discrimination may lead to bullying. For example, discrimination against sexual minorities by some people may cause them to ridicule and ridicule the sexual orientation of sexual minorities and violate their bodies. But we should also make it clear that bullying is not always triggered by discrimination.

How to address bullying?

We can address bullying, through many means and procedures, including the following:

  1. Enhance the child’s self-confidence.
  2. Raising children properly, away from violence.
  3. Observing children and their behaviors from a young age.
  4. Building a relationship of friendship between children and their parents, and creating a warm family atmosphere that brings them together.
  5. Developing solutions to treat and eliminate bullying by the school, and punish all those who behave in this manner.
  6. Subject each of the bully and the victim of bullying to psychological treatment, and help them to strengthen their self-confidence.
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