China is known as the “state of etiquette”. “Rituals” are always present in traditional society. There are courtesy for travel, sitting and lying, banquets, weddings and funerals, birthdays, sacrifices, and battles. Ceremony and so on. The “ritual” here includes the spiritual principles of the traditional ritual system and the traditional ritual behavior. The ritual justice is the spiritual core of the ritual system, and the ritual system is the external manifestation of the ritual spirit, and the two are closely related. Here is just a brief introduction to the traditional etiquette in daily life:
Chinese traditional etiquette and customs:
The etiquette of Chinese:
The etiquette of walking-also pay attention to the handling of interpersonal relationships in the process of walking, so there is the etiquette of walking. In ancient times, the “tend to courtesy” was often practiced, that is, when a low-status person walks in front of a higher-ranking person, he must bow his head and bend over, and show respect to the venerable in small steps. In the traditional walking etiquette, there is also the principle of “do not walk in the middle, and stand in the middle of the door”, that is, you cannot walk in the middle of the road, and you should walk aside; you cannot stand in the middle of the door. This not only shows respect to the venerable, but also avoids pedestrians.
Meeting Etiquette of Chinese:
Chinese people need to be both warm and polite when they meet. There are some rules for how to meet people with different identities. For example, greet in general and bow in the traditional way.
The hand-giving ceremony is the most common meeting etiquette. The method is to hold both hands together (usually the right hand fist is included, and the left hand is added to the right hand) and raised to the chest, standing without bowing, indicating a general courtesy. If you are a guest at someone’s house, when you enter and sit down, the host and guest will be polite and courteous to each other. At this time, what you do is a courtesy, which is called “Yorang”.
Zuoyi is also holding fists with both hands, arching and pressing down, while lowering the head, bending the upper body slightly forward. Making courtesy is a common etiquette in daily life. In addition to the social occasions mentioned above, courtesy are also often used to give thanks, congratulations, apologize and trust others. People with high status also often offer courtesy to those with low status. In traditional society, the supreme person is also worshiped by kneeling, that is, kneeling on the ground, head and hands touching the ground rhythmically, the so-called bowing. Nowadays, bowing to worship is only seen in New Year’s greetings in remote villages, and it is generally no longer implemented. In today’s society, when people meet, they usually use the handshake gift introduced from Western society.
Traditions of Sitting:
The traditional social etiquette order is orderly, and the seats are also divided into primary and secondary inferiority. The venerable sit up and the humble one sits at the end. There are certain rules for any status and where to sit. If you blindly sit in the wrong seat, not only the owner will be upset, but you will also regret the rudeness afterwards. If you are not sure which seats to sit, the best way is to follow the arrangements of the host.
The indoor seating is respected to the east, that is, distinguished guests sit in the western seats and the host usually accompanies them in the eastern seats. The elderly can be arranged in the south facing position, that is, the north seat. The younger generation to accompany the wine is generally in the north facing position, that is, the south seat. The rule for sitting is that the human body should be as close as possible to the food table during eating. When the you are not eating the body should be as far back as possible. If you are here, you should get up and pay your respects immediately.
Eating etiquette occupies a very important position in Chinese culture. In the pre-Qin people, people used “to kiss the guests of the four parties with the gift of swallows”, and the gatherings and drinking of future generations are often scenes of etiquette scenes. The banquet for welcoming guests is called “receiving the wind” and “washing the dust”, and the banquet for sending off guests is called “carving out.” No matter the banquet and drinking ceremony, it is inseparable from the wine, “no wine is no etiquette”. Drinking at a banquet has many etiquette, and guests need to wait for the host to raise a glass to persuade them to drink before drinking. The so-called: “Drink with others, don’t start first.
In China, if guests want to express their gratitude for the host’s hospitality, they can also raise their glasses to the host during the feast. In the process of eating, the owner must also persuade the chopsticks to eat before the guests can move the chopsticks. The so-called: “eat with others, be careful not to taste first.” In ancient times, there were also a list of eating rules, such as “don’t sigh when you eat”, “don’t eat together, don’t eat your hands”, “don’t give your bones to a dog”, etc. The host and guest respect each other and create a good atmosphere of harmonious eating and civilized eating. .
The Rituals of Celebrations in China:
China has been a humanistic society since ancient times. People care for and sympathize with each other. There are many rituals and customs in the celebrations and hangings. Congratulations are generally held during festivals and are paid homage to the elders by younger or lower-ranking people. There are also mutual greetings between peers. Such as the official greetings on New Year’s Day in ancient times and folk New Year greetings. When offering salutes, not only do you have a respectful attitude, chant the congratulatory message, bow your head, but also give the gift. The celebration ceremony is mainly performed in life events in China.
A person’s life has to go through several stages such as birth, adulthood, marriage, birthday celebration, and death. A series of life etiquette are formed around these life nodes. The reproduction of offspring is a major family event, and the birth ceremony is naturally grand and lively.
Baby Birth Celebrations:
In China when the baby was full moon, relatives and friends came to congratulate them and gave gifts of nutritious food and children’s shoes, hats and clothing. The coming-of-age ceremony is required when a child grows up. The coming-of-age ceremony is called the Guanqi ceremony in traditional Chinese society. The 20-year-old man gave a crowning ceremony and took a new name, indicating that the man has the qualifications to get married and undertake social affairs.
The 15-year-old woman gave a sacred ritual, indicating that she had reached the age of marriage.
The age of the modern coming-of-age ceremony is 18 years old, and the school holds a collective coming-of-age oath ceremony to emphasize the adult consciousness of young people. Marriage is a major event in life, which is valued by traditional society. There are six procedures in traditional weddings, the so-called “Six Ceremonies of the Lord of the Week”, namely, accepting, asking for names, najib, accepting, asking for an appointment, and welcoming in person.
Weddings Rituals in China:
In the Song Dynasty, It was simplified to three ceremonies: accepting, accepting coins, and personally welcome. The climax of the wedding is greeted in person. The bridegroom will go to the woman’s house and marry the bride in person. The newlyweds will enter the bridal chamber after visiting the church and give the ceremony and marriage ceremony. On the day of the wedding, relatives and friends came to congratulate one after another, and the host wanted a feast for the guests. Birthday ceremonies generally start after the age of forty. There is a birthday ceremony on the birthday, and relatives and friends send birthday gifts to congratulate them.
Funeral Rituals in China:
The last ritual is a funeral, and no one can escape. The Chinese attach great importance to death, and funerals are developed. It is a vain event for a person to die of righteous fate. Relatives and friends all came to mourn the excitement. In order to express their condolences, people have to offer elegiac couplets, banal scrolls or gifts and cash. The deceased are usually buried within three to five days. The celebration and hanging ceremony shows the spirit of social cooperation and social solidarity of people helping each other.
The spirit of Chinese etiquette is to love others, and the principle of etiquette is to respect others. When dealing with people, you should lower your attitude. Try to treat people with respect in order to win the respect of others. If a high-status person condescends to make friends with a lower-status person, it will have a good social effect.
And respecting people is not only a polite gesture, or only a polite expression, but a heartfelt respect for others. If there is no respect from the heart, etiquette becomes a fake, which does not conform to the traditional standard of etiquette. The principles of courtesy and justice of sincerity, respect, humility, and self-cultivation in traditional etiquette and customs are still worth promoting in contemporary society. Of course, our inheritance of traditional etiquette and customs is a complicated issue, which needs to be carefully analyzed and followed.