Euthanasia refers to the cessation of treatment or the use of drugs for patients who cannot be treated, so that the patients die without pain. The word “euthanasia” is derived from the Greek word , meaning “happy” death. It includes two meanings, one is the painless death of peace; the other is the painless death technique.
Its definition refers to a patient suffering from an incurable disease in a critical state, due to extreme mental and physical pain, at the request of the patient and their relatives and friends, and approved by the doctor, using humane methods to end the life process in a pain-free state.
For severely mentally ill patients , severely disabled persons, and vegetative persons in an irreversible coma, conduct behaviors that cause them to die without pain.
In a narrow sense, it specifically refers to a way of prompting patients who are terminally ill, near death, or in extreme pain to die quickly and painlessly. Also known as painless death.
Generally refers to the latter. There are controversies in various countries over whether euthanasias is legal.
Positive scholars believe that euthanasias must meet the following conditions:
- From the perspective of modern medical knowledge and technology, the patient is suffering from an incurable disease and is approaching death.
- The patient is extremely painful and unbearable.
- It must be implemented to relieve the suffering of the patient before death, not for the benefit of relatives, the country, and society.
- There must be a sincere request or consent from the patient when he is conscious.
- In principle, it must be performed by a physician.
- Appropriate methods recognized by social ethics must be adopted.
Euthanasia classification w.r.t behavior:
Generally divided into two categories:
- Active euthanasia refers to taking measures to promote the death of a patient and ending his life, such as when the patient cannot tolerate the end-stage of the disease.
- Negative (passive) euthanasia. That is to say, the patients in the rescue, such as the dying patient, are not given or withdrawn treatment measures and allowed to die.
In the discussion of euthanasia, the following two situations should also be distinguished:
- Euthanasia of dying patients. Here, euthanasia only advances the time of death slightly.
- Euthanasia of non-dying patients. Without euthanasia, the patient can survive for a long time without consciously suffering, but his quality of life is low, which is a burden to the social family. For example , infants with deformities or underdevelopment, patients with incurable diseases but not yet in the critical stage, and vegetative.
From the perspective of ethics and law, passive euthanasia is close to natural death, while active euthanasia is close to intentional killing.
Major euthanasia classifications:
Among the categories of euthanasia:
Euthanasia was approved in 2009. It was legal in the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg, and the state of Oregon in the United States, and Washington.
Euthanasia is carried out without consent. Where this decision is made by another person, because the patient is unable to do it himself.
Euthanasia social dispute:
Right to life:
Jurisprudence: citizens have the right to choose the way of death
The Constitution stipulates that citizens’ personal freedom and personal dignity are not violated , which has specific meanings. Individual citizens have the right to choose the way of life and, under certain conditions, also have the right to choose the way of death. “Euphanism” is a special way of sanctioning life under special circumstances and without violating the interests of the state, society and others. Such sanctions are subject to strict conditions and procedures. The “euthanasia” legislation implemented by some European countries is a choice between traditional morality and modern law. Therefore, the statement that “euthanasia” is contrary to the Constitution lacks the basic elements.
Ethics: “euthanasia” violates the right to life
From an ethical point of view, it is also ethical for citizens to perform “euthanasia” under the conditions of suffering from a very irreversible physical illness and voluntarily asking to end their lives.
However, “euthanasias” has not been confirmed to have a cause. First, under existing legal conditions, “euthanasia” may lead to “intentional homicide.” The suicide of the patient will not affect others.
However, if he wants to end his life, medical staff and family members assist in meeting his request, which is an act of “helping suicide” in the Criminal Law and is suspected of intentional homicide . Second, if “euthanasia” is confirmed in legal form, it may be used by some people to illegally deprive others of their lives. In addition, when humans’ knowledge of diseases is still very limited, ending the lives of others without legal permission is contrary to the moral norms of the right to survival.
Islamic law opinion of euthanasia
Some doctors help patients to end their lives or pleasures that are contrary to the teachings of Islam. Because he killed the soul that God forbids. Healing reveals despair and despair of God’s mercy.
Scholars have unanimously agreed that it is not permissible for a person to ask someone to kill himself, and if he did so intentionally, it would be murder. However, the person who makes this request fears that his heart is devoid of faith in God Almighty.